Companion planting

Companion planting is a gardening practice that involves planting different crops near each other to enhance mutual growth, improve pest management, and maximize overall garden health.


  • The “Three Sisters” method involves planting corn, beans, and squash together. Corn provides support for beans, beans fix nitrogen for corn, and squash provides ground cover to suppress weeds and retain soil moisture.
  • Planting tomatoes with basil is thought to enhance the flavor of tomatoes and may help deter certain pests.

The full list of good and bad combinations:

Good combinations: 
Potatowith marigolds, peas, beans and garlic
Strawberrywith marigolds, bush beans, lettuce, spinach, garlic, borage
Endivewith fennel
Asparaguswith tomato, parsley and marigolds
Eggplantwith marjoram
Cauliflowerwith oregano
Beanswith celery, sage, carrots, cauliflower, lettuce and potato
Beet or beetrootwith onions, bush beans, dill, celery, kohlrabi and garlic
Dillwith carrots, leeks, turnips, sage, fennel and celery
Peaswith beans, carrots, leeks, turnips, sage, fennel and celery
Kohlrabiwith celery
Cucumberwith dill, garlic, celery and fennel
Melonwith garlic and nasturtiums
Leekswith beans, carrots, peas and turnips
Radishwith parsley
Turnipswith beans, carrots, leek and parsley
Celerywith leeks, cabbage, and basil
Lettucewith chervil, dill, fennel, carrots, turnips and garlic
Spinachwith celery
Chili pepperswith basil, garlic and chives
Tomatoeswith parsley, basil, garlic chives and marigolds
Broad beanswith dill and savory
Onionswith carrots, beets, tomatoes, chamomile, savory and parsley
Carrotswith lettuce, peas, dill, chives and garlic
Bad combinations: 
Potatoeswith tomatoes, rosemary, mint, thyme and chamomile
Strawberrieswith cabbage
Cauliflowerafter spinach
Beanswith fennel, onion, shallots, garlic, and gladioli
Peaswith onion, garlic and rue
Lettucewith parsley
Tomatowith fennel and kohlrabi
Onionsand garlic with beans and cabbage

Natural pest control
Some plants emit natural compounds or fragrances that can repel or confuse pests. By strategically planting these pest-repelling plants near vulnerable crops, you can reduce the likelihood of pest infestations. For example, planting marigolds can help deter nematodes, while basil may help repel mosquitoes and other insects.

Attracting beneficial insects
Certain plants attract beneficial insects that prey on harmful pests. For instance, planting flowers such as calendula and alyssum can attract pollinators like bees and predatory insects like ladybugs, which feed on aphids and other garden pests.

Complementary growth patterns
Some plants have growth patterns or root structures that complement each other, making more efficient use of space and resources. For instance, planting shallow-rooted crops alongside deep-rooted ones can help prevent competition for water and nutrients.

Soil improvement
Legumes, such as peas and beans, are known for their ability to fix nitrogen in the soil through a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Planting these crops near nitrogen-loving vegetables can improve soil fertility naturally.

Masking odors
Some aromatic plants can mask the scent of more vulnerable crops, making it harder for pests to locate them. For example, planting onions or garlic near susceptible plants may help repel pests.

Disease prevention
Certain plants release compounds that may inhibit the growth of pathogens. For instance, planting aromatic herbs like oregano or rosemary near susceptible crops can help protect against soil-borne diseases.

While companion planting is a popular and traditional practice, it’s essential to note that not all combinations have scientifically proven benefits, and effectiveness can vary based on environmental factors. Observing and experimenting with companion planting in your specific garden can help you determine what works best for your crops.

For more info see wiki and their extensive companion planting list.

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